• Chaos in Dynamical Systems: Edward Ott 1993 Cambridge University Press
  • Cellular Automata Machines: T. Toffoli and N. Margolus 1991 MIT Press
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Computing: A.E. Eiben and J.E. Smith 2015 Springer
  • Behavior-Based Robotics: Ronald C. Arkin 1998 MIT Press
  • Vehicles – Experiments in synthetic psychology: V. Braitenberg 1984 MIT Press
  • Neural Networks and Learning Machines: Simon Haykin 2008 Pearson
  • Artificial Immune Systems: A New Computational Intelligence Approach: Leandro N. de Castro and Jonathan Timmis 2001 Springer
  • Growing Artificial Societies Social Science From the Bottom Up: Joshua M. Epstein and Robert L. Axtell 1996 MIT Press
  • Swarm Intelligence - From Natural to Artificial Systems: Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo and Guy Theraulaz 1999 Oxford University Press


  • "Introduction", pp. 1-47, in Cristopher Langton, ed., Artificial Life, Proceedings of the 1987 Workshop, Los Alamos: Cristopher Langton 1989 Addison-Wesley
  • Artificial Life: Steven Levy 1993 Vintage
  • Introduction to Artificial Life Corrected Edition: Christoph Adami 1997 Springer